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中学英语词性解说,十大词类精讲精练

作者:鸭脖官方网站 时间:2021-08-07 00:59
本文摘要:温习方式:熟记各词类的总结、教师提出重难点、强化细节知识的考察、近年在词类方面的命题去向、强化训练 I.英语此类分大种:名动形、数(量)代、介副连冠叹即名词(noun)、代词(pronoun)、形容词(adjective)、副词(adverb)、动词(verb)、数词(numeral)、冠词(article)、介词(preposition)、连词(conjunctions)和叹息词(interjection)。

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温习方式:熟记各词类的总结、教师提出重难点、强化细节知识的考察、近年在词类方面的命题去向、强化训练 I.英语此类分大种:名动形、数(量)代、介副连冠叹即名词(noun)、代词(pronoun)、形容词(adjective)、副词(adverb)、动词(verb)、数词(numeral)、冠词(article)、介词(preposition)、连词(conjunctions)和叹息词(interjection)。一、名词(n.) 表现人、事物或抽象观点的名称的词 (一)名词的分类 名词分为普通名词和专有名词,其中普通名词包罗可数名词和不行数名词,可数名词可用作单数,也可用作复数。可数名词包罗个体名词(表现一类人或物的个体。

如:boy,desk,cat,window)和团体名词(由若干个体组成的荟萃体。如:family,class,police)。不行数名词包罗物质名词(表现无法分为个体的实物。如:water,paper,silk,money)和抽象名词(表现性质、行为、状态、情感或其它)抽象观点。

如:work,happiness,music,difficulty,housework) 专有名词表现小我私家、地方、机构、组织等。如:Tom,the Great Wall,the Spring Festival,France,the United States) (二)名词的数(考点) 1.可数名词有单数和复数两种形式,其复数形式的组成主要有以下几种: (1)一般情况下,在词尾加s。eg.book——books,dog——dogs,pen——pens,boy——boys 以轻辅音末端的名词后的s的读音为[s),以浊辅音和元音末端名词后的s读音为〔z〕。

(2)以s,x,ch,sh末端的词名词变复数时,要在词尾加es。eg.beach——beaches,brush——brushes,bus——buses,box—boxes(es读音为〔iz〕 (3)以“辅音字母+y”末端的名词,先变y为i,再加es。

eg.city—cities,family—families,documentary—documentaries,country——countries,strawberry——strawberries(ies读音为[iz]) (注:以“元音字母+y”末端的词,直接在词尾加-s。eg.boys,holidays,days) (4)以元音字母。末端的名词,变复数时情况如下: ①加es.tomato—tomatoes,potato—potatoes hero----heroes ②末端是两个元音字母的加s,eg.Zoo—zoos,radio——radios ③某些外来词变复数时词尾加s,eg. piano—pianos ④一些名词的缩写形式变复数时,词尾加s, eg.photo(photograph)——photos,kilo(kilogram)kilos ⑤zero变复数时,既可加s,也可加 es.zeros/zeroes (5)以f或fe末端的名词变复数时,先把f或fe变为v,再加es。

eg.wife——wives leaf leaves, half——halves, knife—knives, thief--thieves(res读音为[vz] (注意:roof的复数为roofs; scarf的复数为scarfs/scarves) (6)有些名词由单数变复数时,不是在词尾加s或es,而是变换其中的字母, eg.man—men,woman—women,policeman—policemen,Englishman——Englishmen,Frenchman—Frenchmen, foot——feet tooth—teeth, child——children,mouse—mice (7)另有一些名词的单数和复数形式相同。eg.Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish (8)另一些名词自己即是复数形式,不行用作单数。eg,people,police,trousers,pants,clothes,scissors 另外,①当一个名词作定语说明另一个名词时,这个名词一般用单数。

eg.five apple trees,a girl friend,two girl friends,a twin sister 可是,当man和woman作定语修饰复数名词时,就要用其复数形式。eg.two men teachers,three women doctors ②可用“量词+of+名词复数”这一结构表现可数名词的数量。eg.a room Of students,two boxes Of pencils 2.不行数名词一般没有复数形式,它的“量”的表现方式如下。(考点) (1)表不定数量时,一般用much,(a)little,a lot of/lots of,some,any等词修饰。

eg,much money,a little bread (2)表确定数量时,一般用“数词+量词+of+不行数名词。如:two/three/…+量词复数十of+不行数名词。

eg.a bag Of rice,two glasses Of milk,four bottles Of water 3.有些名词既可作可数名词也可作不行数名词,但词义有所差别。eg: fruit水果——fruits表现差别种类的水果;food食物——foods种种食品;fish鱼——fishes鱼的种类;drink饮料、酒——a drink一杯/一份饮料、一杯酒; cloth布——,a cloth桌布、抹布; sand沙——sands沙滩; tea茶——a tea一杯茶;chicken鸡肉——a chicken小鸡;orange橘汁——an orange橘子; glass玻璃——a glass玻璃杯,glasses眼镜; paper纸——a paper试卷、论文;wood木头——a wood小森林;room空间、余地——a room房间 (三)名词的所有格(表现人或物的所属关系) (难点) (1)有生命的名词所有格以及表现时间、距离、城镇、国家等的名词所有格。①不是以s末端的名词酿成所有格时,在词尾加’s。eg.Mike’s watch;Women’s Day ②以s末端的名词酿成所有格时,只加’。

eg.teachers’ office,students’ rooms ③两个或两个以上名词并列,表现配合所有,只需在最后一个名词后加’s。eg.Tom and Mike’s room汤姆和迈克的房间(表现汤姆和迈克共有一间房) ④两个或两个以上名词并列,表现划分所有,需在几个名词后都加’s。eg. Mary’s and Jenny’s bikes玛丽和詹妮的自行车(表现玛丽和詹妮各自的自行车) (2)无生命的事物的名词所有格常用of结构 eg.a map Of China,the beginning Of this game,the door Of the room (3)特殊形式 ①可用’s和of短语表现的名词所有格 eg.the boy’s name=the name Of the boy(男孩的名字) the dog’s legs=the legs of the dog(狗的腿) China’s population=the population Of China(中国的人口) China’s capital=the capital of China(中国的首都) ②双重所有格 eg.a fiend of my mother’s 我妈妈的一个朋侪 a picture of Tom’s 汤姆的一张图片 二、代词(pron.)取代名词,兼有名词和形容词的作用 相互代词 each other,one another 指示代词 this,that,these,those不定代词(不指明特定的人或事物的代词)each,every,both,all,either,neither,none,no,one,(a)few,(a)little,some,any,many,much,other,another复合不定代词everybody,somebody,anybody,nobody,everyone,someone,anyone,no one,every-thing,something,anything, nothing 疑问代词 what,who,whom,which,whose 直接代词 疑问代词都可作毗连代词,引导宾语从句.表语从句等。

关系代词 who,whom,whose,that,which用引导定语从句。(二)代词的用法 1.人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词和指示代词的用法 (1)人称代词有主格和宾格之分,主格用来作主语,宾格用来作动词或介词的宾语等。

eg. She gavemea red apple.她给了我一个红苹果: (She作主语,me作动词宾语) Kathy is near him.凯西靠近他。(介词near的宾语) 2,物主代词有形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词之分。

①形容词性物主代词位于名词前:their school,his backpack ②名词性物主代词相当干一个名词,在句中可作主语、宾语等,后面不能再接名词。egIt isn’t my pen.→Mine(=my pen) is missing.(作主语) I left my pen at home.You can use hers(=her pen),(作宾语) ③"of+名词性物主代词”属双重所有格的一种形式。

eg.a cat of hers她的一条狗,a friend of yours你的一个朋侪 (3)反身代词 ①反身代词在句中可作同位语,起强调作用,也可作动词或介词的宾语。eg.A few days later,I myself had to go to Paris.(作同位语) She bought herself a new bag.(作动词宾语) He's not worried about himself.(作介词宾语) ②带有反身代词的常用短语。

teach oneself自学 help oneself to随便吃些…吧 say to oneself自言自语. learn...by oneself自学… enjoy oneself过得愉快 leave one by oneself把某人单独留下 hurt oneself伤了自己 dress oneself自己穿衣服 come to oneself苏醒过来 (4)相互代词 ①表现相互关系,可用作动词或介词的宾语,用法区别不大。eg.For years,the two sisters looked after one another(each other).多年来姐妹俩相互照顾。We should learn from each other. 我们应当相互学习。

②可以用格表现所有关系:each other’s, one another’s相互的,相互的 eg.They are looking at each other’s pictures.他们相互看对方的照片。(5)指示代词 ①指示代词有单复数之分,既可指物,也可用于先容人。

Eg This is an apple tree,and that is an orange tree.这是一棵苹果树,那是一棵桔子树。These are my friends,and that is my sister.这些是我朋侪,谁人是我姐姐。②指示代词可用来指上文中提到的事情: eg.Steve had a bad cold.This/That was why he didn’t come to school yesterday· 2.不定代词的用法(考点,难点) (1)each,every,both,all,either,neither,no,none的用法 ①each"每个/各个”(强调个体),用于两者或两者以上。

eg.Two girls came and l gave an apple to each.来了俩女人,我给她们每人一个苹果。Each of them has a nice ring.她们每人有一枚漂亮的戒指。②every"每个/各个”(强调全体),用于两者以上。

every常作形容词用。eg.Everyday is important to us.天天对我们都很重要。He has read every book(all the books) On the subject.他阅读了所有有关这个主题的书 ③both表现两者“都”(强调全体)。

eg.Her parents are both doctors.她怙恃都是医生。Both of them are doctors.他俩都是医生。

They both like potatoes.他俩喜欢吃土豆。④all“全体/大家/一切”用于三者以上,也可接不行数名词。eg.That’s all for today.今天到此为止。

All of us are from China.我们都来自中国。All the food is delicious.所有的食物都很好吃。⑤either“两者之一”,用于两者(强调个体)。

eg.The two coats are cheap,so you can choose either of them.那两件外套不贵,你可以随便挑一件。⑥neither“两个都不”,用于否认两者。eg. Neither Of the books is/are so interesting.那两本书没一本悦目的。

⑦no(=not any/not a)“没有”可接可数名词单复数,也可接不行数名词。eg.I have no brothers Or sisters.我没有兄弟姐妹. A clock has no mouth,but it can talk. 钟表没有嘴,但能说话。There is no fire without some smoke.有火就有烟。

⑧none“没有一小我私家/物”用于否认三者或三者以上的可数名{司。eg.None Of them has/have been to Japan.他们都没去过日本。I like none of the books.这些书我全都不喜欢。⑨neither和none表现完全否认;all,both,each和every(含every的复合词)等与not连用时表现部门否认。

eg.I don’t know all of you.我不完全认识你们。Not everyone Of us know how to go there.不是我们每小我私家都知道怎样去那儿。(2)one,ones和no one的用法one用来取代前面刚提到的一个工具或一小我私家,以免重复;复数ones用来取代前面提到的一些物或一些人;no one表现否认。

eg.——Would you please pass me the science book?给我递过那本科学方面的书好吗? 一Which one?哪一本? 一The one on my shelf.我书架上的那本。No one has traveled farther than to the moon.没有人旅行远过月球。(3)(a)few,(a)little;many,much;some,any的用法(考点,难点) ①many(+复数名词),much(+不行数名词)表现“许多/许多”。

eg.Many Of the students come from England.那些学生许多是从英国来的。Thanks,it’s too much for me.谢谢,我蒙受不起。②few(+复数名词),little(+不行数名词)表现“没多/很少”(表否认)。eg,There were few people in the street last night.昨晚街上没什么人。

I am very worried that l have little time to finish the job.我担忧,我险些没有时间完成这份事情了。③a few(+复数名词),a little(+不行数名词)表现“有一些/有几个”(表肯定)。eg.I call see a few cakes and a little bread inthe fridge.我看到冰箱里有几块蛋糕和一些面包。

注意:quite a few表现“相当多” eg.There are quite a few students over there.那儿有相当多的学生。④some(+复数名词/不行数名词),any(+复数名词/不行数名词)表现“有一些/有几个”(表肯定)。

eg.There are some birds in the tree.树上有些鸟。There is some water in the bottle.瓶里有些水。I don’t have any brothers Of sisters.我没有 Is there any tea in the cup?杯子里有茶吗? ⑤.some一般用于肯定句,但在表现请求、建议。反问等的疑问句中,多用some。

eg: Would you like some beer?你要不要来点啤酒吗? Why didn’t you buy some sweets?(You should have bought...)你怎么没买点糖果? ⑥.any一般用于疑问句和否认句及条件从句 eg.There isn't any water left.没有剩下一点水。If you have any questions, put up your hands。please.如果有问题,请举手。⑦:some+单数名词表现“某一个”,any+单数名词表现“随便哪一个”或“任何一个”。

eg.I'll catch up with you some day有一天我会遇上你的。Come any day you like.你哪天来都行。Tom is taller than any other student in his class.汤姆比他班上其他任何一个学生都高。

④one ,other, others, the others ,another等的用法 1.○ ● one……the other 表现两小我私家或两件工具中的“一个…另一个” eg. Mr Smith has two daughters.0ne is a teacher,the other is a nurse. 2.○ ○○●○ one ………another 表现不定数目中的“一个”与“另—个”。eg. I don’t want this One, please give me another. 3.○ ●●● one ……the others 强调在一定规模中的“一个”与“其余的”。eg. In Our school One Of the teachers is American,the Others are Chinese. 4.○○○ ●●●● some…… the others 表现许多人或物,不在一定规模中的“一部门”与“其余的全部”。

eg.Some students are reading,the others are drawing pictures. ⑤others=other+名词;the others=the Other+名词。eg.Some students like traveling,others(other students) like watching TV at home ⑥another表现“再/又”时既可接单数名词,也可接数词+复数名词。eg. He will be able to finish his work in another two hours.再过两个小时他就能完成他的事情。(4)复合不定代词的用法 ①复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

eg.Someone is knocking at the door.有人在敲门 ②修饰复合不定代词的形容词或其它词要放在其后,即定语后置。eg.There is something important On today’s newspaper.今天的报纸有些重要新闻。③复合不定代词变否认句时,要否认主语: eg.Something is wrong.(变为否认句) Something isn’t wrong.(错误) Nothing is wrong.(正确) ④Somebody,someone,something一般用于肯定句;anybody,anyone,anything一般用于否认句、疑问句及条件句。

eg.There is something new in the park.公园里有些新的景点。Do you have anything interesting to tell us?你有什么有趣的事要告诉我们吗? ⑤当somebody,someone等用于疑问句时,表现肯定、请求、建议或反问;anybody,anyone等用在肯定句中表现“任何人”。

eg.Is someone coming this afternoon?今天下午有客人来吗? Anyone can make mistakes. 任何人都可能犯错误。3.疑问代词的用法。(1)who/whom 谁(指人). ①作主语 eg. Who wants to go with him? ②作宾语 eg.Who/Whom are you waiting for?(作介词for的宾语) eg.Who/Whom do you want to meet?(作动词meet的宾语) ③作表语 eg.Who/Whom are they? (2)whose谁的 ①作定语 eg.Whose pen is this? ②作表语 eg.Whose is this pen? (3)which哪一个,哪一些 ①作定语 eg.Which girl is Kathy? ②作表语 eg.Which is the boy’s ball? (4)what什么 ①作主主语 eg.What’s on the table? ②作宾语 eg. What are you doing? ③作表语 eg.What is he? ④作定语 eg.What class are you in? 4.关系代词的用法 关系代词用来引起定语从句,它一方面代表定语从句所修饰的谁人名词或代词,另——方面又在从句中充当一个身分。eg·This is the man who gave me the book. 这就是给我书的谁人人。

The money that/which is on the table is mine. 桌上的钱是我的。The money that/which my mother gave me is on the table. 我妈妈给我的钱在桌上。三、形容词(adj.) 表现人和事物的特征,对名词起修饰和描绘作用 四、副词(adv.) 表现行动特征或性状,主要修饰动词、形容词、副词及整个句子 (一)形容词的用法及位置 1.形容词在句中作定语、表语、宾语补足语等,作定语时一般放在名词前。

Eg. She has short hair.(作定语) Paul is tall.(作表语) We must keep our room clean.(作宾补) 2.形容词修饰不定代词时放在其后。eg.She has something important to tell us./There’s nothing wrong in the sentence. (二)副词的种类、用法及位置 1.副词的种类 (1)时间副词 ①表现大要时间:now,then,yesterday,today, tonight,before,justnow,recently ②表现频率:always,usually,often,sometimes.seldom,never ③其它作用:already,yet,early,soon,at once,immediately,atfirst at last (2)所在副词 ①表所在:here,there,home,abroad,upstairs,downstairs,anywhere,everywhere,nowhere,somewhere ②表位置关系(后接宾语时,用作介词):above,below,round,around,down,in,out,inside,outside,across,back,along,over,away,near,off,past (3)方式副词 表现谓语动词“怎样地”,(此类副词大部门由形容词加ly组成):badly,bravely,gratefully,calmly,carefully,carelessly,nervously,proudly,patiently,politely,sadly,properly,rapidly,wrongly,suddenly(4)水平副词 多数用来修饰形容词或副词:much,(a)little,a bit,very,sO,too,enough,quite, rather,completely,terribly,deeply,nearly,almost,hardly (5)疑问副词 组成特殊疑问句:how,when, where,why (6)毗连副词 毗连主语、宾语或表语从句:how,when,where,why (7)关系副词 引导定语从句:when,where,why(8)其它性质的副词 对整个句子举行说明,一般用逗号与主句离隔:frankly(坦率地说,说真的),generally(一般说来),luckily(幸运地是),first of all(首先)等。2.副词的用法及位置 (1)修饰动词作状语 ①多数位于动词之后,及物动词的宾语或介问的宾语之后。eg.The farmers are working hard in the field. She speaks English well. The nurse looks after the babies carefully. ②频度副词放在动词前,情态动词和助动词之后。

eg.He always goes to school On foot. She was often late for school. I have never been to Beijing· (2)修饰形容词作状语,放在形容词前。eg.He has a very nice watch. The box is too heavy. (3)修饰另一副词作状语,放在另一副词前。eg.She paints quite well. You speak too fast.I can’t understand you. (4)作表语,放在系动词后。

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eg.Is anybody in? (5)作宾语补足语,放在宾语之后。eg.I saw him out just now. (6)作定语,放在名词之后。eg.There is a man:here On vacation. (7)疑问副词、修饰整个句子的副词以及perhaps,first,sometimes,finally等副词,一般 放在句首。

eg.Finally,I finished the work. Perhaps he’s watching TV at home. (8)表现水平的副词一般放在被修饰词前,而enough则放在它所修饰的词后。eg. He is old enough to go to school. (三)形容词和副词的比力品级 1.比力级、最高级的组成 (1)单音节和少数双音节词 ①一般在词尾加er或est great--greater——greatest,young——younger——youngest,slow→slower→slowest ②以e末端的只加r或st nice——nicer----nicest,large——larger—largest. ③以辅音字母加y末端的,先变y为i,再加er或estheavy——heavier——heaviest, easy——easier—easiest, busy——busier——busiest,funny——funnier——+funniest, early——earlier→earliest④以重读闭音节末端的词,先双写最末的一个辅音字母,再加er或est big—bigger—biggest,thin——thinner——>thinnest,fat—)fatter→fattest,ht—)fitter→fittest (2)多音节和部门双音节词,前加more为比力级,加(the)most为最高级 careful→more careful——most careful useful——more useful——most useful popular→more popular→most popular carelessly——more carelessly——most carelessly (3)不规则变化的词 good/well→better→best bad/ill/badly→worse→worst many/much→more→most little→less→least old→older/elder→oldest(指年事巨细)/eldest(指长幼顺序) far→farther/further→farthest(指距离)/furthest(指水平) 2.形容词和副词比力级、最高级的用法 (1)形容词和副词比力级的用法 ①用于两者比力,表现“比…更…”: “A+系动词+形容词比力级+than+B, eg.I am two years older than my little sister. “A+谓语动词+副词比力级+than+B: eg.She gets to school earlier than the other students. ②用于两者之间的同级比力,表现“…和…一样”: “A+系动词+as+形容词原级+as+B, eg.Bill is as funny as his father. “A+谓语动词+as+副词原级+as+B” eg.Lucy speaks Chinese as well as Lily. ③表现甲在某方面不如乙: “A+系动词+notas/so+形容i司原级+as十B” eg.These books aren’t as interesting as those. “A+助动词/情态动词+not+谓语动词+aS/SO+B” eg.She didn’t sing sO well that night as she usually does. ④表现某个规模内的两者相比:“A十动词十the+比力级+of短语(比力规模)”eg.Penny is the taller of the two girls.Penny是这两个女孩中较高的一个。

⑤表现“越来越…”:“比力级+and+比力级” eg.In spring the days are getting longer and longer. 在春天,白昼变得越来越长。⑥表现“越…越…”:“the+比力级…the+比力级”eg.The mort:you practice using English,the better you’ll learn it 你英语练得越多,就会学得越好。①可以用much,far,even,a bit,a little,a lot等修饰比力级表现水平,但决不行用very修饰。

eg.Tom is a little taller than Mike.Tom比Mike稍高一点; it is even colder today than yesterday。今天甚至比昨天更冷 ⑧在比力级中,为了制止重复,可用that或those取代前面提到过的事情。eg.The weather here is much hotter than that Ofour hometown.这儿比我的老家热得多。

The pants in this shop are a lot better than those in that shop.这家商店的裤子比那家商店的裤子质量好得多。(3)形容词和副词最高级的用法 对三者或三者以上的人或物举行比力时用最高级。形容词最高级前面要加定冠词the,副词最高级前可加the,也可省掉the;后面可带of/in短浯来说明比力规模: “主语+系动词+the+形容词最高级+of短语/in短语” eg.She is the youngest Of all. “A+谓语动词+(the)+最高级+of短语/in短语” eg.Linda draws most carefully in her class. 五、冠词(art.)用在名词前,资助说明其意义 冠词分为不定冠词a/an和定冠词the,放在名词前、a/3n用在单数可数名词前(a用于辅音音素开头的词前,an用于元音音素开头的词前)。

1.不定冠词 (1)不定冠词的用法 ①泛指—类人或物。eg.This is a pencil case. She’S a doctor. ②指不详细的某小我私家或物。eg.I met an old man On my way home. ③用在序数词前,相当于another。

eg.There’s a third boy near the shop. ④表现“每—(个)”,相当于every。eg.They have music lessons twice a week. ⑤牢固搭配。

a lot Of,a lot,a little,a few,a glass Of,such a/an, have a word with,have a look,have a try,have a swim,a quarter,half an hour, three times a day,have a talk,give a talk,ten Yuan a kilo (2)不定冠词的位置 ①不定冠词—般放在所修饰的单数可数名词前。eg,a bike,an egg ②当名词被such,what,many修饰时,不定冠词放在这些词之后。eg.It took me half an hour to finish my homework. He left in such a hurry that he forgot to close the door. What a dangerous job it is! Many a man has gone to the big cities for work. ③当名词前的形容词前有so,how,too等词时,不定冠词应放在形容词之后。

Eg. She was so nice a girl that she took the blind man to the station. How nice a film this is! ④当名词前面有形容词和quite,rather,very时,不定冠词放在quite,rather之后,very 之前。eg.It is quite a good book. That is rather a useful too1. This is a very interesting story 2.定冠词的用法表现上文中所提到过的人或物。

  eg:l have two children,a boy and a girl.The boy's name is Mark.The girl’s name is Penny. (2)特指某(些)人或物。eg: The girl in a red dress comes from America. (3)指说话人和听话人都熟悉的人或物。eg: My shoes are under the bed. (4)用在形容最高级和部门比力级前。

eg Tom is the taller of the two boys. (5)用在序数词前。eg Monday is the second day of a week. (6)yo用在世界上唯一无二的事物前(如太阳、月亮、世界、地球、天空、宇宙等)。

cg The moon moves round the earth. (7)用在某些形容词前,表现—类人或物。the rich(富人),the poor(穷人),the deaf(聋人),the blind(瞽者),the dead(死者), the wounded(伤员) (8)用在姓氏复数前,表现“某某—家人”或“某某匹俦”。eg.The Greens are having dinner at home. (9)用在乐器前。

eg.play the piano/guitar/violin/drums. (10)用于逢“十”的复数数词前,指某个世纪中的几十年月某人的约莫年岁。eg. In the 1970s,a highway was built to linkup the city with my hometown. I think he is in the thirties. (11)用在某些专有名词和习习用语中。the United Nations,the Great Wall,the Summer Palace,the Palace Museum,in theend,in the day,in the middle Of,all the time,in the east,by the way,On theway tO,the(more)...the(more)…“越…越…” 3.不用冠词的情况 (1)名词前有指示代词this,that,these,those时不用冠词。

eg.That girl is my friend. (2)名词前有物主代词my,your,his her,their等时不用冠词。eg.Lucy is her sister. (3)名词前有whose,which,SO[1ie,any,each,every等代词时不用冠词。eg.Which man is Mr Green? Each student has a beautiful picture. (4)复数名词表现一类人或物时不用冠词。

eg.Those young men are teachers,not students. (5)物质名词表现种类时不用冠词。eg.Snow is white. (6)抽象名词表现一般观点时不用冠词。

eg.Does she like music? (7)在球类运动和棋类游戏前时不用冠词。eg.play basketball/soccer/chess (8)在三餐前不用冠词。

eg.have breakfast/lunch/supper/dinner (9)在人名、地名、节沐日、星期、月份前不用。Eg. Tina,China,Tian an men Square,Beijing University,New Year’s Day,Tuesday,January (10)在学科和节目名称前不用冠词。

eg.My favorite is English. (11)在某些牢固搭配中不用冠词。eg.at noon, at work,at home,by bus, by air,On foot,from morning till night,at night,go to school,go to bed,at last 4.在有些词组中,用冠词和不用冠词意思有较大区别。in hospital(在住院);in the hospital(在医院) in prison(在坐牢);in the prison(在牢狱里) at table(用饭,用餐);at the table(在桌旁) in front of(在某个规模之外的前面);in the front of(在某个规模之外的前面) go to college(上大学);go to the college(去那所大学) take place(发生);take the place(取代) 六、数词 (一)基数词 在英语中表现数目的词称为基数词。

1.基数词的组成 (1)1-20one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,eleven,twelve,thirteen,fourteen,fifteen,sixteen,seventeen,eighteen,nineteen,twenty (2)21-99 先说“几十”,再说“几”,中间加连字符。23→twenty-three,34→thirty-four,45→forty—five,56→fifty-six,67→sixty-seven,78→seventy-eight,89→eighty-nine,91→ninety-one (3)101—999先说“几百”,再加and,再加末两位数或末位数; 586→five hundred and eighty-six,803→eight hundred and three(4)l,000以上,先从右往左数,每三位数加一个“,”,第一个“,”前为thousand.第二个“,”前为 million,第三个“,”前为billion(美式)或thousand ,million(英式),然后一节一节地表现。1,001→one thousand and one 9,785→nine thousand, seven hundred and eighty-five 18,423→eighteen thousand,four hundred and twenty-three 6,260,309→six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine 750,000,000,000→seven hundred and fifty, billion(美式) seven hundred and fifty thousand million(英式) 2.基数词的用法 (1)作主语 eg.Four Of them come from Paris. (2)作宾语 eg.一 How many books would you like? 一I would like two. (3)作表语 eg.Seven minus two is five. (4)作定语 eg.There are three people in my family· (5)作同位语 eg. You two will go swimming with us. (6)表详细数字时,hundred,thousand,million用单数。

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eg. There are six hundred students in our grade.(7)表不确定的数字时,数词用复数。若带名词,再加of hundreds of(数百,成百上千的),thousands of(数干,成千上万的),millions of(数百万) eg,They arrived in two sand threes.他们三三两两地来了。(8)表现“…十”的数词的复数可以表现人的岁数或年月。

eg. He is in his early thirties.他有三十明年(31—34岁): This took place in the 1930s.这事发生在二十世纪三十年月; (9)表现时刻 eg.I watch CCTV News at seven o’clock every evening. (二)序数词 在英语中表现顺序、序次的词称为序数词。1,序数词的组成 (1)一般在基数词后加th eg.four→fourth,thirteen→thirteenth (2)不规则变化one→first,two→second,three→third,five→fifth,eight→eighth,nine→ninth,twelve--~twelfih (3)以y末端的十位整数,变y为ie再加th twenty→twentieth, forty→fortieth, ninety→ninetieth (4)从21后的“几十几”直至“几百几十几”或“几千几百几十几”只将个位的基数词变为序数词。twenty-first,two hundred and forty-fifth 2.序数词的用法 (1)序数词作定语时,一般要与定冠词或物主代词连用。eg.Tom is their second son. He is the first one to come here. (2)序数词有时可与不定冠词连用,表现数量上"又—",“再一” eg: He tried a second time.他又试了—次. Shall l ask him a third time?还要我再问他—次吗?我已问了他两次) (3)序数词的缩写形式为:阿拉伯数字加上这个词的末尾两个字母。

1st 2nd,3rd,4th,20th,21st,22nd,23rd (4表现年、月、日时,年用基数词,日用序数词。2005年8月15日:(英)15,8,2005=15th,August,2005;(美)8,15,2005=August 15th, (三)基数词和序数词都可以用来给数字编号。

No.1(1号),No.3bus(3路公共汽车),Room 103,(103号旁间) The first lesson=Lesson Two(第二课) (四)分数词的表达 分子用基数词,分母用序数词,分子大于1时,分母加s eg.1/3-one third;2/5-two fifths (五)数学运算的表达 eg.3+5=8 Three plus/and five is eight. 9-2=7 Nine minus two is seven. 6x5=30 Five times six is thirty /six unutilized five is thirty. 8÷2=4 Eight divided by two is four. 七、介词 (一)表现时间的介词 (1)at ①接详细时间:eg.at six,at half past two,at ten to twelve ②表现“在…时刻”;eg: at noon,at midnight (2)in ①表现“在(某段时间段)之间”; eg.in January,in a month,in spring,in 2005 ②在未来时中,表现“在某段时间之后” eg.In ten years,I think I'll be a reporter. (3)on 表现在详细的某一天或某一天的上午、下午或晚上等。eg. On Monday,On Tuesday afternoon,On May4th,On the morning of July 6th (三)牢固搭配的介词(1)动词+介词:look after,look at,look for,laugh at,listen to,hear fromturn On,turn off, wait for,worry about,think of,spend...On (2)介词十名词:by train,on foot,at the end of ,at last,in the end,in trouble,at table,at breakfast,in hospital,in time,On time, On one’s way to,with pleasure (3)be+形容词+介词:be afraid of ,be good at,be good/bad for, be late for,be interested in,be angry, with,be full of,be sorry for 八、连词(conj.用来毗连词与词或句与句 (1)并列连词(用来毗连平行的词、词组或分句) ①表并列关系:not only...but also,neither...nor,and ②表选择关系:or,either...or ③表转折关系:but,while ④表因果关系:for,so (2)附属连词(用来引导从句) ①引导时间状语从句:after,before,when,while,as,until,till,since,as soon as ②引导原因状语从句:because,as,since ③引导目的状语从句:so that,in order that ④引导效果状语从句:so that,so…that,such...that ⑤引导比力状语从句:than,as…as ⑥引导宾语从句:that,if, whether 九、动词(verb.)动词表现主语的行动或状态 (一)动词的种类。(1)及物动词vt,其后接宾语。

eg.She wears a uniform. (2)不及物动词vi,不接宾语。eg :She can dance. (3)连系动词like-v.接表语。

eg.They are nurses. That sounds interesting. His mother looks young. If you keep milk for too long, it goes bad. (4)助动词aux--V.接动词原形或分词(它无实在意思,只起语法作用)。eg, DO you like pandas? He has gone to Australia. She is looking at the cat. (5)情态动词mod-v.接动词原形(它不能单独作谓语,有自己的意思,无人称和数的变化)。Eg. He must go now. You should clean the classroom after class. (6)有些动词既可作及物动词,也可作助动词或不及物动词,be也可作助动词。eg.I do my homework after class.(Vt.) Do as you like.(Vi.) She is a little bit quiet.(mod-v.) She is swimming now.(aux-v.) 二)情态动词的用法 (一)can,could,may的用法 l .can/could (1)表现具有某种能力,意为“能,能够,会”(could表已往)。

eg.I can sing English songs. Lisa can’t speak Japanese. She could swim when she was four years old. (2)表现许:可、允许,意为“可以”。eg.Can we watch TV now? You can’t play computer games in the morning. (3)表现请求某人做某事,意为“能,能够”(用could使晤气更委婉)。

eg.Can/Could you help me,please? (4)表现推测“可能”,多用于否认句和疑问句中。(表肯定推测可用must,might,could等) cg。it can’t be true.这不行能是真的。

Where can he have gone?他可能会去哪儿呢? 2.may/might (1)表现许可、允许,意为“可以”,比can更正式。eg. May l use your pen?我可以用你的钢笔吗? May l ask you a question?我可以问你—个问题吗? (2)表现推测“可能”,用于肯定句和否认句,不能用于疑问句。eg.He may be at home now.他可能现在在家。She may not be there today.今天她可能不在那儿。

(二)can与be able to的区别 1.两者都可以用来表现能力。eg.I can/am able to mend the bike. 2.can只有现在时(Can)和已往时(could),而be able to可用于多种时态。eg. I will be able to come back in another few months. He hasn’t been able to get there before dark. 3.can可以表现推测,但be able to不能。

eg.That Can't be Gina's dictionary. 4.can与be able to;不能重复使用eg.他能做好这件事。He can be able to do is well.(X) He can do it well.(√)He is able to do it well.(√) (三)must与have to的区别 1.主客观方面差别。must表“义务”或“强制”,表现主观的须要;在肯定句中must还可表推测,语气要比 may肯定多。

have to表“必须”或“不得不”,表现客观的须要。eg.We must clean the room.(表现我们认为房间太脏了。

) We have to clean the room.(表现没有人替我们扫除房间等客观原因。) He must beat home before supper。

(他晚饭前一定在家。) 2.人称和时态差别。must无人称和时态的变化,一律用must十动词原形。

have to后接动词原形,有人称、数和时态的变化,一般现在时的第三人称单数要用has to,已往时中要用had to,未来时中要用will have to。另外,have to还可与情态动词和助动词连用。eg: Tom must practice his guitar every day. The train has left.We'll have to wait for the next train. 3.否认式及意义差别。must not=mustn't“决不行/千万不行/务必不要”;don’t/doesn’t/didn’t/won’t+ have to“不必” eg.We mustn’t tell jokes on him.我们千万不行与他开顽笑。

We don’t have to tell jokes on him.我们不必和他开顽笑。在对May I…? 作否认回覆时用No, you mustn’t/can’t. eg. May l go to the movies? NO,You mustn't 5.疑问式及回覆差别。Must+主语+动词原形+…? Yes,主语+ must./NO,主语+needn’t. 助动词+主语+have to+动词原形+…? Yes,主语+助动词./No,主语+助动词+not. eg.Must l go now? Yes,you must./NO,you needn’t Does she have to go to the doctor? Yes,she does./NO,she doesn’t.。


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